What Is Common in Computer Languages?

Computing Languages Overview

Computer languages can be categorized into three types.

  • Machine Languages
  • Low Level Languages
  • Structured Languages

Machine Language

It is a machine language of 0’s and 1’s and is the most flexible of all languages, but machine dependent and not portable

Assembly Language

It is a low level language of 0’s and 1’s but mnemonic codes are assigned for ease of learning.

Like cp=10010000 to copy data.

Structured Languages

The Structured languages use three structures for writing programming code.

  • Sequence structure
  • Loop Structure
  • Decision Structure

Every modern language uses above three structures with difference in syntax.

They are near to human language instructions usually in English.

Sequence Structure

In sequence structure the code lines are executed or run in sequence or order line by line.

For example BASIC Language code to display name on screen.

CLS

Print “Please Enter your name:” Input $name

Print “My Name is ” $name

End

Loop Structure

In Loop Structure the program lines are executed for specified times until a condition is true

CLS

For X=1 to 100

Print X

X=X+1

End For

End

The above code will be executed until X variable value is greater than 100.

Here FOR structure is used some languages uses DO WHILE or WHILE structure for loop.

Decision Structure

Decision Structure is for decision making.

For example the below code will take input from screen and display information upon input analysis.

Here IF structure is used

CLS

Print “Please your marital status S for single and M for married ”

input $STATUS

IF $STATUS=”S” THEN Print “Single”

Else

IF $STATUS=”M” THEN PRINT “Married”

Else

Print “Not Valid Entry”

End

There are many structured languages few of them are:

BASIC

It stands for Beginners all purposes instructions code language.

It is English like language for easy understanding of beginners for various tasks like gaming, business and mathematical problems.

Pascal

Used for engineering and scientific calculations

FORTRAN

Stands for Formula Translation used for engineering and scientific calculations

COBOL

Stands for Common Business Oriented Language used for business applications

C Language

Developed by Bell lab used for system software development

C++

An extension of C Language uses OOP or object oriented programming for Application and system software.

OOP technology uses class structures for development as it uses existing codes/classes for re-use rather than to develop new one to reduce development time. Objects have properties and methods to handle them.

Visual BASIC

Extension of BASIC Language uses OOP designed for application development.

Java

It is like C++ designed to develop web page development and make them interactive through database linkages.

HTML

Stands for Hyper Text Markup Language used for web page development.

Joomla

Developed for Internet based applications.

PHP

Developed for Internet based server side applications

LISP

Stands for List processing developed for robotics.

All languages except machine language needs compilers to convert programming code into machine language of 1’s and 0’s understandable to machines.

Every language has its compiler made to convert it into machine code.

Some Languages uses interpreters and assembly language uses assembler to do these tasks.